Monday, January 10, 2011

First- Aid Courses

Training for first aid is offered by the American Heart Association,
the American Red Cross, the National Safety Council, and other
nationally recognized and private educational organizations. OSHA
does not teach first-aid courses or certify first-aid training courses
for instructors or trainees.

First-aid courses should be individualized to the needs of the
workplace. Some of the noted program elements may be optional
for a particular plant or facility. On the other hand, unique
conditions at a specific worksite may necessitate the addition of
customized elements to a first-aid training program.

There are a number of elements to include when planning a firstaid
training program for a particular workplace. These recommendations
are based on the best practices and evidence available at
the time this guide was written. Statistical information is available
from BLS to help assess the risks for specific types of work.
Program elements to be considered are:
1.Teaching Methods
Training programs should incorporate the following principles: Basing the curriculum on a consensus of scientific evidence
where available;
Having trainees develop “hands-on” skills through the use of
mannequins and partner practice;
Having appropriate first-aid supplies and equipment available;
Exposing trainees to acute injury and illness settings as well as
to the appropriate response through the use of visual aids;
Including a course information resource for reference both
during and after training;
Allowing enough time for emphasis on commonly occurring
Emphasizing skills training and confidence-building over
classroom lectures;
Emphasizing quick response to first-aid situations.
2. Preparing to Respond to a Health Emergency
The training program should include instruction or discussion in
the following:
Prevention as a strategy in reducing fatalities, illnesses and
Interacting with the local EMS system;
Maintaining a current list of emergency telephone numbers
(police, fire, ambulance, poison control) accessible by all
Understanding the legal aspects of providing first-aid care,
including Good Samaritan legislation, consent, abandonment,
negligence, assault and battery, State laws and regulations;
Understanding the effects of stress, fear of infection, panic; how
they interfere with performance; and what to do to overcome
these barriers to action;
Learning the importance of universal precautions and body
substance isolation to provide protection from bloodborne
pathogens and other potentially infectious materials. Learning
about personal protective equipment -- gloves, eye protection,
masks, and respiratory barrier devices. Appropriate management
and disposal of blood-contaminated sharps and surfaces; and
awareness of OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens standard.
3. Assessing the Scene and the Victim(s)
The training program should include instruction in the following:
Assessing the scene for safety, number of injured, and nature of
the event;
Assessing the toxic potential of the environment and the need
for respiratory protection;
Establishing the presence of a confined space and the need for
respiratory protection and specialized training to perform a rescue;
Prioritizing care when there are several injured;
Assessing each victim for responsiveness, airway patency
(blockage), breathing, circulation, and medical alert tags;
Taking a victim’s history at the scene, including determining the
mechanism of injury;
Performing a logical head-to-toe check for injuries;
Stressing the need to continuously monitor the victim;
Emphasizing early activation of EMS;
Indications for and methods of safely moving and rescuing
Repositioning ill/injured victims to prevent further injury.
4. Responding to Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed or adapted for the specific
worksite and may include first-aid instruction in the following:
Establishing responsiveness;
Establishing and maintaining an open and clear airway;
Performing rescue breathing;
Treating airway obstruction in a conscious victim;
Performing CPR;
Using an AED;
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of shock and providing
first aid for shock due to illness or injury;
Assessing and treating a victim who has an unexplained change
in level of consciousness or sudden illness;
Controlling bleeding with direct pressure;
• Ingested poisons: alkali, acid, and systemic poisons. Role of
the Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222);
• Inhaled poisons: carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; smoke;
and other chemical fumes, vapors, and gases. Assessing the
toxic potential of the environment and the need for respirators;
• Knowledge of the chemicals at the worksite and of first aid and
treatment for inhalation or ingestion;
• Effects of alcohol and illicit drugs so that the first-aid provider
can recognize the physiologic and behavioral effects of these
Recognizing asphyxiation and the danger of entering a confined
space without appropriate respiratory protection. Additional
training is required if first-aid personnel will assist in the rescue
from the confined space.
Responding to Medical Emergencies
• Chest pain;
• Stroke;
• Breathing problems;
• Anaphylactic reaction;
• Hypoglycemia in diabetics taking insulin;
• Seizures;
• Pregnancy complications;
• Abdominal injury;
• Reduced level of consciousness;
• Impaled object.
5. Responding to Non-Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed for the specific worksite
and include first-aid instruction for the management of the following:
• Assessment and first aid for wounds including abrasions, cuts,
lacerations, punctures, avulsions, amputations and crush injuries;
• Principles of wound care, including infection precautions;
• Principles of body substance isolation, universal precautions
and use of personal protective equipment.
• Assessing the severity of a burn;
• Recognizing whether a burn is thermal, electrical, or chemical
and the appropriate first aid;
• Reviewing corrosive chemicals at a specific worksite, along
with appropriate first aid.
Temperature Extremes
• Exposure to cold, including frostbite and hypothermia;
• Exposure to heat, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion and
heat stroke.
Musculoskeletal Injuries
• Fractures;
• Sprains, strains, contusions and cramps;
• Head, neck, back and spinal injuries;
• Appropriate handling of amputated body parts.
Eye injuries
• First aid for eye injuries;
• First aid for chemical burns.
Mouth and Teeth Injuries
• Oral injuries; lip and tongue injuries; broken and missing teeth;
• The importance of preventing aspiration of blood and/or teeth.
Bites and Stings
• Human and animal bites;
• Bites and stings from insects; instruction in first-aid treatment
of anaphylactic shock.

1 comment:

  1. First aid courses, earthquake drills, fire drills, safety training online programs, are just some of the few safety training programs that can actually help ensure that accidents and mishaps are prevented and whether they are not prevented, people would know how to react in order to save more lives.